ARE CARGO BIKES THE FUTURE?

This article looks into cargo bikes and asks if they are the future?

Sean Benesh

This article comes off the back of a very interesting day I had with Michael Barratt at the Constructors Cycle Experience event on Thursday. This proved to be very eye opening. Two of the main things I learned were about the need to adapt cycle specific junctions to cope with the extra turning circle that cargo bikes require. The other was about the very real opportunities that cargo bikes provide for urban transportation and last mile logistics.

The quote below demonstrates exactly what last mile logistics is:

“Last mile delivery is defined as the movement of goods from a transportation hub to the final delivery destination. The final delivery destination is typically a personal residence. The focus of last mile logistics is to deliver items to the end user as fast as possible.”

The video below from DHL shows just how powerful an instrument cargo bikes can be when integrated into the logistics system of a large multinational.

The stats behind DHL’s use of bikes for last mile logistics are impressive. One bike replaces two vehicles, with bikes capable of carrying up to 125Kg. Interestingly, the bikes can make twice as many stops per hour as the vehicle. This shows why DHL is opting for this solution, it makes sense from an economic perspective as well as having environmental and CSR benefits.

The video below from DW News highlights how cargo bikes, particularly with the advent of electrification are also suitable for small businesses operating in urban environments.

It shows how transitioning from a van to a cargo E-bike is great for the wellbeing of the person cycling. The person can also save €180 in fuel costs by making this switch. There are still some drawbacks though, at €3,700 a cargo bike is more in the price range of a car than a bike. This may dissuade people from having a cargo bike for summer use as it may be an either-or purchasing decision. It is also important to point out that it is still a relatively niche market, but it will hopefully grow into a significant market in the future.

What you need to know

This article looked into cargo bikes.

We looked at what last mile logistics is.

We looked into examples from small operators and large multinationals which demonstrate the power of cargo bikes.

Cargo bikes are a viable option for last mile logistics. Even with a switch to electric delivery vehicles, you still encounter problems with traffic, parking and congestion charges. Bikes encounter none of these problems. Hopefully we see a greater variety of businesses choosing to make cargo bikes a core part of their operations.

Thank you for reading,

By Barnaby Nash

Please share your thoughts in the comments section below, or reach out to me on social media. What do you think needs to be done to encourage greater use of cargo bikes?

Let’s stay connected

I can be reached on LinkedIn and on Twitter @FollowBarnaby

 

 

HOW TO OVERCOME THE BARRIERS TO CYCLING

This article looks into how the barriers to cycling can be overcome. It is based on the analysis of the book Promoting Walking and Cycling by Pooley et al.

Photo by Noralí Emilio

Last week’s article focussed exclusively on the barriers to cycling. You can find this via the link below.

BARRIERS TO CYCLING

This week’s article focusses on solutions that can be deployed to overcome the barriers to cycling.

1. Fix the urban environment

Fixing the urban environment has to be the number 1 priority for any local authority interested in increasing their rates of cycling. This includes providing fully segregated cycle routes on all arterial and other busy roads in urban areas. The research by Pooley, et al revealed that for most non-avid cyclists, they will only do so when their routes are completely segregated from traffic.

2. Traffic calming measures

Their needs to be effective restrictions on traffic speeds, parking and access on all residential roads and routes not covered by segregated bike paths. This provides cyclists with a safe and convenient environment in which to travel. Ideas include 20 mph speed limits, traffic calming infrastructure measures and resident only access by car in some areas.

3. Legal changes

The system of legal liability should be reformed to protect the most vulnerable road users, such as cyclists and pedestrians. One option would be to adopt strict liability, so that pedestrians or cyclists injured by a motor vehicle would not have to prove fault in seeking compensation. This legal form places an obligation on drivers to obtain insurance that will pay vulnerable victims independently of fault. This is adopted in many countries with high rates of cycling and incentivises drivers to act carefully.

4. Planning and development changes

There needs to be changes in the spatial structure through planning legislation. This would make accessing common services by bike easy. This would restrict out-of-town developments and mandate the provision of secure bicycle parking facilities and the provision of cycle storage facilities in new homes.

5. Socioeconomic changes

The research by Pooley, et al revealed how socioeconomic factors often acted as barriers to cycling. These need to be resolved to increase cycling rates. These include the greater use of flexi time, more family friendly welfare policies and policies to encourage children to go to the most local school. These changes would make it easier for people to use the most sustainable form of transport to get to school and to work.

6. Image change

It is necessary to change the image of cycling and walking. There is a need for campaigns to promote walking and cycling as normal and something that is for everyone. This would also follow on naturally from all of the above policies, which would see more people cycling and so help to normalise this as a transport mode and not an activity.

What you need to know

This article looked into how the barriers to cycling can be overcome. It was based on the analysis of the book Promoting Walking and Cycling by Pooley et al.

What should be clear from both of these articles is that there are a number of barriers that are holding down rates of cycling in the UK, but that there are specific solutions that could address this.

It is clear that hard infrastructural changes need to be made to segregate cyclists from vehicles as much as possible, alongside traffic calming measures where this is not possible.

Then legal changes could make drivers more aware that they will face consequences for injuring a cyclist and so drive more cautiously.

Planning and development changes are required and development changes are needed to create an urban form more conducive to cycling.

Socioeconomic changes are needed to make cycling possible for some families and a marketing campaign is needed to change the image of cycling.

Overall, all of these changes would go a long way to increasing rates of cycling in the UK.

Thank you for reading,

By Barnaby Nash

Please share your thoughts in the comments section below, or reach out to me on social media. What do you think needs to be done to increase rates of cycling?

Let’s stay connected

I can be reached on LinkedIn and on Twitter @FollowBarnaby

BARRIERS TO CYCLING

This article looks into barriers to cycling. It is based on analysis drawn from the excellent book Promoting Walking and Cycling by Pooley, et al. You can find an image of the cover below.

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Based on their time spend researching the barriers to cycling and how they can be overcome, they identify 5 main themes that act as barriers to greater levels of cycling in the UK.

1.  Problems associated with urban infrastructure

Cycling like any activity requires space for it to flourish. For too long and in too many places it was simply assumed that cyclists could use the exact same infrastructure that was built for cars with no alterations and modifications. Where this is the case it is hard for cycling to break through as a mainstream form of transportation as it is perceived to be highly dangerous by large segments of the population. The authors single out junctions in particular as one of the road areas most in need of modification to accommodate cyclists. But which is often not completed.

 

2. Issues of safety and risk  

This follows on from the lack of designated space for cyclists to use. It is simply the case that to many fast, busy roads come across as being inappropriate for cycling. It also encompasses people who may feel at risk cycling alone at night and those who worry about a potential theft of a bike at their home, work or other parking location.

3.  Constraints imposed by families and lifestyles

Another major barrier that arose was the difficulty of getting multi-person, multi-age households to make all or some of their journeys by bike. These include problems of storing and maintaining a fleet of road worthy bikes for all of the family. Including all of the equipment necessary to cycle safety in all 4 seasons

4. The impact of weather and topography

Another barrier that arose frequently was that of concerns over wet weather and hills. Wet weather means that modifications to the bicycle such as mudguards and cycling specific wet weather gear is needed. Whereas hills present an obstacle in that they are physically exhausting to climb if they are very large and they also may not be able to be climbed on bikes with few gears, meaning that a more sophisticated bicycle with more gears is required. The authors did make clear that the impact of topography and hills registered as a barrier far more infrequently than some of the barriers that have already been mentioned.

5. The influence of culture and image

Cycling is not yet a major mode of transportation in the UK, although there are positive moves in this direction. Its marginal status means that a vibrant culture of cycling for transport has not developed in many areas in the UK. I will quote from the authors below:

With cycling we have entered a self-reinforcing and downward spiral, in which barriers to cycling ensure it remains unusual, and its unusual status deters and/ or sabotages efforts to make it more normal and mainstream.”

It is sad that for many people in many places in the UK, cycling does not even register as a form of transportation to be used on a daily basis. There is an argument to be made that this could be a rational decision, made on thee basis of the lack of infrastructure available.

What you need to know

This article looked into barriers to cycling. It is based on analysis drawn from the excellent book Promoting Walking and Cycling by Pooley, et al. What should be clear is that there are a range of barriers preventing cycling from being taken up as a form of transportation by people in the UK. These range from purely technical to sociological phenomena. It therefore stands to reason that in integrated approach is required that seeks to come at the problem from many angles is required.

Thank you for reading,

By Barnaby Nash

Please share your thoughts in the comments section below, or reach out to me on social media. What do you think the main barriers to cycling are?

Let’s stay connected

I can be reached on LinkedIn and on Twitter @FollowBarnaby

 

3 REASONS WHY AMSTERDAM IS ONE OF THE BEST CITIES IN THE WORLD FOR CYCLISTS

This article looks into 3 reasons why Amsterdam is one of the best cities in the world for cyclists.

Amsterdam is a European and world cultural capital. It is famous for being a party hotspot and for being exceedingly liberal where other world cities choose not to be. It is also a phenomenal city for cyclists. Let’s now turn to why this is the case.

1.     Infrastructure

The cycling infrastructure in Amsterdam is first rate. Where most cities in the world are crying out for an integrated network of separated bike lanes. Amsterdam has these in abundance. This network is worth far more than the sum of its parts. You can get from almost any location to any other location by bike in an extremely safe and segregated manner.

bike path 1

Where separated bike lanes are not available, you can make use of quiet backstreets and parks which are well integrated into the system of bike lanes.

This network of safe segregated bike lanes is such that you see many people aged 8-80 and quite possibly beyond that range cycling across the city. You see almost no wearing of helmets or Hi-Vis jackets whatsoever, such is peoples feeling of safety and confidence. It is not uncommon to see pregnant ladies and parents and grandparents cycling with children in child seats. This is an extremely safe system to cycle on.

Overall, it cannot be overstated just how high quality the cycling infrastructure is in Amsterdam.

2.     Effort

The sad truth is that cities around the world have largely oriented themselves around the private car and have made cycling an afterthought. In Amsterdam this is not the case. Time and again the city authorities go to unbelievable levels of effort to make cycling easier and safer.

Whereas in a lot of areas cyclists are seen as a problem to be managed, in Amsterdam they are seen as a solution to be encouraged.  We will now look into a few examples of these extraordinary efforts.

The cycling and walking tunnel under Amsterdam Central Station is my personal favourite. It looks really nice and makes a great cut through for the two most sustainable forms of urban transit.

Tunnel1

Next is the giant multi-storey bike park adjacent to Amsterdam Central Station. I have never really understood how people manage to find their bikes in there after they park them, but it is a remarkable piece of infrastructure nonetheless.

Parking multistory

Lastly, the effort that goes into junctions and roundabouts is absolutely outstanding. Having a network of segregated paths is great, but how that system fits together is also vitally important. With cycling infrastructure you are only as strong as your weakest point. At junctions there are buttons and traffic lights specifically designed for cyclists. You feel incredibly safe cycling at junctions in Amsterdam.

traffic lights 1

3.     Culture

The culture of cycling in Amsterdam makes it a truly special place for cyclists.

Cycling infrastructure can only do so much. In many places drivers take it upon themselves to intimidate cyclists in the most egregious manner. In Amsterdam this does not happen. Because almost all car drivers will also be cyclists, there is an entente cordiale between cyclists and drivers the likes of which I have never seen anywhere else. This means that where drivers and cyclists come close to one another such as on back streets, that cars are incredibly civil. It also means that drivers are far more likely to check their wing mirrors before opening a car door, as they would not wish for it to happen to them. You only get behaviour like this once you fully embed a cycling culture within a city.

Further advantages of having a cycling culture within a city is the factor of safety in numbers.

Cycling 1

Safety in numbers helps a lot on journeys across the city, but it is also useful when parking. In a lot of places it would be incredibly unusual to just lock your wheels, but in Amsterdam this is commonplace. With so many bikes parked in so many places, the chance of your bike becoming a victim of theft is small.

In other cities where there are only a small number of highly professional bike commuters it is necessary to lock your bike against a fixed object.

Overall, Amsterdam has a phenomenal cycling culture and is a special place for cyclists.

cycling 2

What you need to know

This article looked into 3 reasons why Amsterdam is one of the best cities in the world for cyclists.

  1. The infrastructure in Amsterdam is extensive of high quality and extremely safe to use.
  2. The effort the city authorities go to to roll out the red carpet for cyclists is stunning when compared to cities around the world.
  3. The culture of cycling in Amsterdam is deeply ingrained into the psyche of the city. This makes it special.

Overall, cycling in Amsterdam is not like cycling in any other city in the world.

Thank you for reading,

By Barnaby Nash

Please share your thoughts in the comments section below. What do you think is the best city in the world for cycling in?

Let’s stay connected

I can be reached on LinkedIn and on Twitter @FollowBarnaby

 

 

LONDON LIKE YOU HAVE NEVER SEEN IT BEFORE

This article is a collection of pictures and videos of London, like you have never seen it before. It contains footage of people cycling safely through London, in what would otherwise be a hostile environment for cyclists.

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This was my first year attending RideLondon. It is a fantastic event and if you haven’t been I highly recommend going.

RideLondon 2017 Compilation Video

Cycling along The Mall with no cars was excellent.

Cycling under Admiralty Arch was wonderful, as you can see there are many children on the ride.

Chancery Lane is one of my favourite streets in London. Listen to all the noises you can hear with no cars.

Lincoln’s Inn Fields is one of  my favourite parks in London, it was great to see it so car free and quiet.

A scene in Blackfriars, shot during a cafe stop.

What you need to know

RideLondon is a fantastic event, which does a lot to promote cycling within London. A few things impressed me. The number of children and families was higher than I expected. The number of clearly novice cyclists was also higher than I expected as was the number of attendees.

What I was most struck by was how quite it was. In central London, it makes you realise that cars and buses make an extremely large amount of noise, which makes life in cities unpleasant. Cycling on the other hand is an extremely quiet mode of transport.

I have for a long time been convinced that the private car has no place in city centers. How you go about removing it is a tricky question.

A first step could be to ban all but electric vehicles from the city center. That deals with an air pollution problem, but not a street architecture, cycling safety or congestion problem.

You could also play around with the congestion charge, with surge pricing during commutes or road pricing. These could work, but those with money and a willingness to pay would still be able to enter the city center.

Would would be a more equitable solution would be to remove the car from city centers entirely. It would be a solution that would work for people, the planet and help businesses become more profitable. Urban areas without cars are wonderful places. In order to create an urban renaissance and to make sure that scenes like the ones in RideLondon happen more frequently, London needs to stand up to the private car.

Thank you for reading,

By Barnaby Nash

Please share your thoughts in the comments section below. If you liked this kind of content, let me know and I can make more articles like this.

Let’s stay connected

I can be reached on LinkedIn and on Twitter @FollowBarnaby

 

LONDON AS A BIKE CITY – A PANACEA TO A HEALTHY AND SAFE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT

Tragically, 6 cyclists died in London within 13 days in November 2013. This must stop. It is paradoxical that London, the city where the modern bicycle was invented, has cycle infrastructure which is amongst the most dangerous in Europe. There is a desperate need for change. We must use the deaths as a focussing event, and completely overhaul London’s cycle infrastructure. This would bring enormous environmental and social benefits.

My vision: London as a bike city

Fundamentally, London is facing two important crises. One is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which car use is a major contributor (Cycling England, 2007; Vidal, 2013). The other is that despite investments, cyclists safety hasn’t improved (GLA, 2012; London Cycling Campaign (LCC), 2012). These should be addressed by building a continental-style cycle system across London.

My vision is for a London with far fewer cars, where far more people cycle, and do so in safety. Environmental grounds support turning this vision into a reality. Cycling can help cities reduce their GHG emissions. Europe-wide GHG emissions from transport are substantial and increasing (Blondel, et al., 2011). It would seem sensible to look at increasing bicycle patronage. Cycling uses the least non-renewable resources, produces the lowest emissions (almost zero, see figure 1) and is the most energy efficient of all transport modes (Oja & Vuori, 2000; Pucher, 1997; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a). Importantly, it is the local air quality which is improved for residents (GLA, 2013).

image 1
Figure 1: The environmental impact of transport modes (ECMT, 2004, p.23)

Bicycles have a natural place in cities. They are ideal for replacing London’s frequent, short trips <5 km, when car engines are cold and inefficient (Cycling England, 2007; Gardener, 1998). This would reduce the external costs of transport, without reducing mobility (See figure 2).

image 2
Figure 2: Comparative table of urban journey speeds (ECMT, 2004, p.23)

There is a clear case for cities to increase cycling rates to meet emissions targets. The Fourth IPCC Assessment Report (2007) showed cities increasing their share of trips by bicycle from 1% to 10% reduced their GHG emissions by 8.4%. Moreover, getting vehicle commuters cycling could save 112t of CO2/pa per 1000 that switch; and save the The Exchequer ~ £70 per head from pollution abatement costs (Cycling England, 2007). Lastly, if the whole EU cycled at Danish levels, it would reduce oil imports by 9% and make a 26% contribution to Europe’s Kyoto protocol commitments (Blondel, et al., 2011). As we can see, there are strong environmental grounds for increasing London’s anaemic cycling rates.

Cycling in London isn’t safe (see figure 3). Whilst the Mayor’s rhetoric is as positive as always: ‘under our plans, it will be safer’ (GLA, 2013). Nationwide, this is the 8th successive year the number of killed or seriously injured (KSI) cyclists has increased (Department for Transport, 2013). Danny Dorling (2010) has branded it a ‘public health crises.’ In London, cyclist injuries were up 60% in 2012 (Transport for London, 2013). Fear remains a massive obstacle, and only 33% would describe cycling in London as safe (LCC, 2012; Sustrans, 2012). This needs to change.

Image 3
Killed or seriously injured casualties by mode of travel, London 2012 (Transport for London, 2013, p.4)

The Mayor is placing faith in Jacobsen’s (2003) theory of safety in numbers, where incidents diminish when more people cycle. Amsterdam, Berlin and Copenhagen increased bicycle patronage and simultaneously decreased the number of incidents (Fietsberaad, 2010; Pucher, et al., 2010; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a; Pucher & Buehler, 2008b). However, this was down to the type of intervention. The continental-style of separate bicycle facilities prevents large differences in speed, direction and mass at moderate and high speeds (Wegman & Aarts, 2008). It is obvious that London’s cycling interventions have failed. Londoners deserve a safe, continental-style cycle system.

Institutional mechanisms to create the bike city

Government involvement has a huge role to play in this vision. Government investment is needed to construct the cycle-system. Whilst regulation and economic instruments will maximise the benefits it brings.

To transform London into a bike city, the Mayor needs to tackle the following infrastructure head-on.

Firstly, the Mayor needs to build a dense network of cycle lanes, separated from cars (ECMT, 2004; Gardener, 1998; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a; Pucher & Buehler, 2008b). In light of the recent deaths (3 on 1 cycle superhighway alone) the Mayor is strongly advised re-evaluate this policy. He must retrofit the existing and construct all new superhighways to continental best-practice standards (LCC, 2012). London also needs a colour-coded system of directional signs for cyclists (Oja & Vuori, 2000; Pucher & Buehler, 2008b).

Where it is not possible to bypass junctions, these need modification. This should include spatial separation and colour–coding, traffic lights for cyclists and signal time reallocated in their favour (Pucher, 1997; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a; Pucher & Buehler, 2008b; Sustrans, 2012). Again, in light of the recent deaths, the Mayor shouldn’t modify the dangerous gyratories which blight the capital, but instead set a timetable for their removal (LCC, 2012).

The network alone will not be sufficient. It needs complementing with safe cycling routes for residential shortcuts (Oja & Vuori, 2000). London has an extensive network of side streets for this (GLA, 2013). The Mayor should build more residential contraflow lanes, which permit cyclists to ride against traffic on one-way streets (Pucher, 1997; Pucher, et al., 2010).

Bicycle parking in London is unacceptable. The Mayor needs to provide more secure bicycle parking at all public buildings, and in busy public spaces (Fietsberaad, 2010; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a). Also, the Mayor needs to link cycling with public transport by providing more and better bicycle parking at terminals (ECMT, 2004; Gardener, 1998; Pucher, et al., 2010). This will facilitate bike-and-ride trips and increase bicycling (Martens, 2007). He also needs to regulate developers and landlords with high standards for bicycle parking, and time limits to meet these within (Fietsberaad, 2010; LCC, 2012; Pucher & Buehler, 2008b). To claw back capacity from the car and provide it to cyclists, new parking racks should be built in car parks and on car lanes (Pucher, 1997).

This brings us to the car restriction policies. Instruments are needed to complement the cycle infrastructure, as rebound effects could arise if congestion is reduced (Blondel, et al., 2011). The Mayor should adopt a variety of traffic calming measures (Gardener, 1998; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a; Pucher & Buehler, 2008b). Reducing the speed limit to 20mph, firstly on residential roads and then on the main road network would be welcomed (ECMT, 2004; LCC, 2012; Sustrans, 2012). This would increase the safety of cycling (Dorling, 2010; GLA, 2013), and improve the speed of bicycling relative to driving (Pucher, et al., 2010). London led Europe with the congestion charge (Pucher, et al., 2010; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a). However, in transitioning towards becoming a bike city, it must be expanded and the price increased to cover the full external costs of driving (Blondel, et al., 2011; Oja & Vuori, 2000). Car parking should be removed, or its price increased (Fietsberaad, 2010; Gardener, 1998). Lastly, traffic laws need to be reformed, to always give right-of-way priority to cyclists (Pucher, 1997; Sustrans, 2012). Implementing these would go a long way towards restricting car use in favour of cycling.

Governance to build the bike city

The governance of turning London into a bike city is complicated. Local government has jurisdiction over where most ‘bikeable’ trips are made (Gardener, 1998). Local government is also the most efficient authority for designing and implementing bicycle policies (ECMT, 2004). The problem is, that whilst cost-effective, cycle intervention isn’t cheap (Aldred, 2012). Bicycle-proofing London’s junctions would cost £100m, yet boroughs only contribute £100,000/pa for cycle infrastructure (LCC, 2012). It is useful to see how the successful European cycling countries corrected for this. There, national governments generally provided the overarching policy framework, legislation and financial resources; whilst local governments also contribute financially, and oversee the planning and construction of interventions (ECMT, 2004; Martens, 2007; Pucher, 1997; Pucher & Buehler, 2008a; Pucher & Buehler, 2008b). I would therefore recommend a similar level of collaboration between Westminster and the GLA for turning London into a bike city.

Potential bottlenecks

The vision contained within this paper was ambitious, and its implementation is likely to be problematic. Chief among these is overcoming the ‘institutional block’ which is holding London back (LCC, 2012). Ideally, London’s cycle policy should have been continuous and integral, with the cycle network built after WWII, when space was available (ECMT, 2004; Fietsberrad, 2010). However, London has proven resilience, and I am confident this can be overcome. London also needs to target those groups who are less taken to cycling. This can be overcome with marketing campaigns and promotional festivals, educating children, and financial incentives (Oja & Vuori, 2000; Pucher, 1997; Sustrans, 2012). I anticipate bicycle thefts to increase substantially as the bike city takes shape. To combat this, I recommend adopting the Dutch system of persistently combating thefts through electronic identification and recovery of stolen bikes, and set targets for this (ECMT, 2004; Fietsberrad, 2010; LCC, 2012). Despite these, I believe that London is more than capable of transforming itself into a bike city.

Thank you for reading

By Barnaby Nash

References

Aldred, R. (2012). How can we get Britain cycling? Response to the Inquiry by the All Party Parliamentary Cycling Group. London: Westminster University. Retrieved from: http://rachelaldred.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/cycling-inquiry-aldred-final1.pdf

Blondel, Mispelon, & Ferguson (2012, November). Cycle more Often 2 cool down the planet! Quantifying CO2 savings of Cycling. Brussels: European Cyclists Federation. Retrieved from: http://www.ecf.com/wp-content/uploads/ECF_CO2_WEB.pdf

Cycling England. (2007, May). Valuing the benefits of cycling: A report to Cycling England. Retrieved from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110407094607/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/cyclingengland/site/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/valuing-the-benefits-of-cycling-full.pdf

Department for Transport. (2013, June). Reported Road Casualties in Great Britain: Main Results 2012. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/reported-road-casualties-in-great-britain-main-results-2012

Dorling, D. (2010, November). Roads, Casualties and Public Health: the Open Sewers of the 21st Century. PACTS’ 21st Westminster Lecture and ETSC’s 12th European Transport Safety Lecture. Lecture conducted from One Birdcage Walk, London, England.

European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT). (2004). National Policies to Promote Cycling. Retrieved from: http://www.ecf.com/wp-content/uploads/ECMT-2004_National-Policies-to-Promote-Cycling.pdf

Fietsberaad. (2010). Continuous and integral: The cycling policies of Groningen and other European cycling cities. Fietsberaad: Publication 7. Retrieved from: http://www.fietsberaad.org/index.cfm?lang=en&section=Kennisbank&mode=detail&repository=Fietsberaad+publication+7+als+dochter+van+de+nederlandse+versie

Gardener, G. (1998). When Cities Take Bicycles Seriously. Worldwatch, 11(5), 16-22. Retrieved from: http://www.worldwatch.org/node/458

Greater London Authority (GLA). (2012, November). Gearing up An investigation into safer cycling in London. City hall, The Queens Walk: Greater London Authority. Retrieved from: http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/For%20print%20-%20Gearing%20up%20-%20safer%20cycling%20in%20London%2029%20Nov.pdf

Greater London Authority (GLA). (2013, March). The Mayor’s Vision for Cycling in London – An Olympic Legacy for all Londoners. City hall, The Queens Walk: Greater London Authority. Retrieved from: http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Cycling%20Vision%20GLA%20template%20FINAL.pdf

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg3/en/ch5s5-3-1-5.html

Jacobsen, P. L. (2003). Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury prevention, 9(3), 205-209. Retrieved from: www.injuryprevention.com

London Cycling Campaign (LCC). (2012). London Cycling Campaign response to GLA Transport Committee ‘Investigation into Cycling’ 2012. Retrieved from: http://lcc.org.uk/articles/lcc-submits-policy-recommendations-to-gla-transport-committee-investigation-into-cycling

Martens, K. (2007). Promoting bike-and-ride: The Dutch experience.Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41(4), 326-338. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2006.09.010

Oja, P., & Vuori, I. (2000). Promotion of Transport Walking and Cycling in Europe: Strategy Directions. Tampere: European Network for the Promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity. Retrieved from: http://www.panh.ch/hepaeurope/materials/HEPA%20Walking%20and%20Cycling%20Strategy%20.pdf

Pucher, J. (1997). Bicycling boom in Germany: a revival engineered by public policy. Transportation Quarterly, 51(4), 31-46. Retrieved from: http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/bicyclingboomingermany_TQ1997.pdf

Pucher, J., & Buehler, R. (2008a). Making cycling irresistible: lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Transport Reviews, 28(4), 495-528. doi:10.1080/01441640701806612

Pucher, J., & Buehler, R. (2008b). Cycling for everyone: lessons from Europe.Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2074(1), 58-65. doi: 10.3141/2074-08

Pucher, J., Dill, J., & Handy, S. (2010). Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: an international review. Preventive Medicine, 50, S106-S125. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.07.028

Sustrans. (2012, September). London Assembly Transport Committee inquiry Investigation into cycling in London. Bristol, England: Sustrans. Retrieved from: http://www.sustrans.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/091220london_assembly_investigation_into_cycling_in_london_sustrans_repsonse.pdf

Transport for London (TFL). (2013, June). Casualties in Greater London during 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/casualties-in-greater-london-2012.pdf

Vidal, J. (2013, March 19). UK air pollution: why are we only now waking up to this public health crisis?. The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/mar/19/uk-air-pollution-health-crisis

Wegman, F., & Aarts, L. (2008). Advancing Sustainable Safety National Road Safety Outlook for 2005-2020. Leidschendam, The Netherlands: SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.